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The Ethnographic Park, trying to best reconstruct the former village from the vicinity of Nowy Sącz, tries to present construction, everyday life and other aspects of all groups of people forming the culture of the city of Tuscany, geographically, historically, economically and culturally. The Park’s spatial design assumes the division of the exhibition area (20 hectares) into four major sectors, showing the construction of individual ethnographic groups. Besides, in the central point of the countryside, there is a manor house with an avenue and a manor park and an economic complex in its vicinity. Over the stream, in the north of the Park will be a complex of traditional folk industry objects, powered by water (sawmill, mill, “folusz” – device for the material). Almost all the objects in the Sądecki Ethnographic Park are original – they were dismantled in the village, transferred, preserved and re-assembled in the open-air museum. So far in one case only – due to the earlier destruction of the original object – reconstructions of the antique stables were made according to the previously made inventory. ansferred buildings are grouped into team farms, which sometimes consist of objects from different farms and even from different villages. The principle is to comply with the ethnographic group, wealth, object type. Sadecki Ethnographic Park presents the traditional folk culture of Nowy Sącz in all its richness: spatial, property, social and occupational diversification in the village. The exhibition features traditional crafts and artistic craftsmanship during the summer season. The cottages and some of the buildings are furnished with old furniture, equipment, utensils, pieces of clothing, paintings and other objects presenting the rich tradition of our region. Apart from the material culture in the interior there are exhibits showing the spiritual and social aspects of rural life: ritual, magic, beliefs, folk medicine. Sadecki Ethnographic Park is designed to resemble the old countryside as closely as possible. Surrounding each homestead is consistent with local tradition. There are flower gardens, herbariums, vegetable gardens, fields, orchards, suitably selected high and low greenery, wells, hives. The courtyards or farmsteads were surrounded by ancient fences, chapels, roadside crosses. In the summer season, the open air museum organizes folklore events of various topics, presenting traditional economic activities, former crafts, crafts and country production,  family rituals, singing, music and dance of all ethnographic groups, folklore of national minorities and neighboring countries. The initiator of the Sadecki Ethnographic Park at the end of the 1960s was Hanna Pieńkowska (dr.) – former Provincial Heritage Inspector in Cracow. The design assumptions of the Park were prepared by Wojciech Szczygieł (mgr inż., architect), in the ethnographic part – Tadeusz Szczepanek (mgr).

The author of the concept of an open-air museum as a „village museum” is Maria Brylak-Załuska (mgr), the first architect, long-time manager of the open-air museum and later keeper (due to acting as the Voivodship Heritage Conservator) – Zygmunt Lewczuk (mgr inż.arch.). Building of the Sadecki Ethnographic Park began in 1969. It was made public in 1975.

 

Sector of German colonists (so called “Józefińscy”)

THE GERMAN COLONISTS SECTOR, a new sector in the Sadecki Ethnographic Park presents the culture of a local, minority ethnic group known as the “józefińscy” colonists or the Galician Germans.

The cultural diversity of the local population was very large. That is why, in the Sadecki Ethnographic Park besides the sector shoving the construction of Polish ethnographic groups – Lachs, highlanders from Nowy Sacz, Pogórzans – there are sectors presenting the construction and culture of the Ruthenians, Lemkos and Carpathian Gypsies. A minority ethnic group was also Germany, living in scattered enclaves and called in the area of the former Austrian partition „Galician”. German agricultural settlers came from countries in central Germany, mainly from the Palatinate, Hessen and Nassau (now Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate provinces, with the cities of Frankfurt am Main and Mainz). They were brought to Galicia in 1781-1786 by the emperor of Austria Joseph II, under his special regulation, the so-called. patent. They emigrated to a country unknown to them at that time in search of better living conditions, encouraged by the prospect of receiving land, and by the financial support given to volunteers by the emperor’s treasury. These settlements were located in the vicinity of Nowy Sącz in the area of confiscated royal and monastic possessions, mainly among the Lachs – a native of the Polish ethnographic group. Subsequent generations were largely polonized. All of them, together with the Lemkos, Lachs, Highlanders, Jews and Gypsies (now called the Roma), have co-created a multicultural mosaic of ethnicity, characteristic for the Nowy Sącz. Those who considered the Germans were forced in 1944 by the Nazi authorities to emigrate westward outside the new border, which was on the Odra and Nysa. As in the case of the displaced people, Lemkos survived the material evidence of their lives: in the form of atypical architecture of buildings and their systems, shaped differently than in neighboring Polish villages. It was made possible by the implementation of the project „Extension of the Ethnographic Park in Nowy Sącz” by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) – INTERREG IIIA Poland – Slovak Republic Community Initiative 07.2005 – 04.2007. The sector is located along the new interior road of the open-air museum, which will in the future link the northern part currently in operation and the new main entrance to the exposition with its older part – the south. A fragment of the original building of German colonists was reconstructed here, by reconstructing three historic brick buildings from Gołkowice, from the XVIII and XIX centuries. Buildings, serially situated at the summit of the road, form a cliff typical for the colonial system of the village. Every farm between the house and the granary had a courtyard separated from the road by a high fence wall, with an entrance gate. Two buildings significantly remodeled and one non-existent since the 1990s were built in Gołkowice. Their reconstruction in the open-air museum brings visitors to this specific part of the history of the settlement development in the Carpathians, where already the German presence has noted, among others, on the neighboring Nowy Sacz – Spisz. One of the homesteads in Gołkowice, non-existing, marked with conscript number 28, was intended for permanent exhibition – presentation of residential and economic interiors connected with the life of German colonists from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. According to historical premises are equipped with a residential and economic building – hallway, kitchen, hall, alcove, stables and utility room. The remaining two homesteads in the open-air museum will be used for other purposes related to the functioning of the museum: farm No. 27 was adapted for variable exhibitions, and in the homestead No. 28 there were auxiliary stores and rooms for employees. All 3 homesteads together form a characteristic reconstruction of the original architecture and landscape spatial structure.

An important element of the exposition device of this sector is the translocation and reconstruction of the original evangelical church, built in 1809. Wooden object, originally located in the Stadlo, also inhabited by the colonists (“józefińskich”). Abandoned and unused after the Second World War, dismantled in 1958 and transferred to the neighboring village  Świniarsko, where was rebuilt and converted to a Roman Catholic church. For the next few decades the church of the Polish community. In May 2003, after a lightning strike, the tower burned down. The destroyed facility was handed over to the District Museum. Thanks to the agreement with the Monument Conservator and the voivodship authorities – it was decided to rebuild the church in another place. Within a few months the church was transported to a new area. On June 29, 2008, the church was again restored to worship and made available to the Evangelical community. (see video)

The evangelical church, reconstructed in the Lemko sector Orthodox church from Czarne and the Roman Catholic church from Łososina Dolna make up a unique museum exhibit in the open air. At present, the extended outdoor exhibition of the Sadecki Ethnographic Park, these historic wooden temples of three different Christian streams are not only one of the tourist attractions of the region. The ecumenical, multicultural space of an open-air museum becomes a kind of sign of the time in which the historical past of Poland and Europe presents the spiritual values which today, in the third millennium of Christ’s birth, lead this part of the world towards a harmonious, communal future.

 

Ethnographic groups in the vicinity of Nowy Sącz and Lemkos

The area of Nowy Sącz was strongly culturally diverse, inhabited by three Polish ethnographic groups: Lachs, highlanders from Nowy Sacz, (from Łąck, Kamienica and Piwniczna) and Pogórzans (western part) and additionally the Lemkos – an ethnic group, often identified with an ethnographic group. Two of the groups living in the Beskidy Mountains (highlanders and Lemkos) are highland groups. Their culture was shaped by various factors, the most important being the mountain environment and the influence of the Wallachian migration that took place in the 14th-16th centuries and covered the whole of the Carpathians. It was characterized by the pastoral and agricultural type of mountain economy and the specific characteristics of the Carpathian region with cultural features, manifested in various aspects of life: style of building, clothing, household, decor and folklore. The Lemkos occupied a special place in the ethnographic image of the Nowy Sącz area. These are the Ruthenian highlanders, a group formed as a result of the 16th-century Ruthenian-Wallachian settlement with the former inhabitants of Poland. The Lemkos have maintained their distinctiveness through the Greek orthodox or orthodox religion and speech, similar to the Ukrainian language. After the Second World War Lemkos have been displaced to the western and northern parts of Poland. In last decades some of them returned to Beskydy. The other two ethnographic groups, Lachs and Pogórzans, settled in the northern part of the Sądecczyzna land, an area more favorable to agriculture, with more fertile soils and milder climate. Lachs had a strong sense of belonging, distinct culture, own dialect, music, dances, clearly distinguished dress – initially only in the center of the Sadecka Valley. Due to the expansive nature of their culture, range of occurrence of some elements, such as the Lachs regional outfit, has clearly increased in the north and northeast.

Pogórzans was a group closely related to the entire Carpathian Foothills, extending all the way to the eastern border of the state. Sadeczcyzna is the area where the westernmost part of the Foothills lies, which – through the influence of neighboring areas – had a significant impact on the process of cultural transformation within this group. The Lachs and Pogórzans cultures combine elements of the highlanders, occurring in the Carpathians, with elements of the Małopolska culture, especially – Eastern Cracovians. This transitional character manifests in many areas, from construction (referring to the central architecture of Malopolska), through clothing – harmoniously connecting the elements of both cultures, to the folklore different. At the end of the 18th century, Germans appeared in the vicinity of Nowy Sącz. The Austrian authorities brought them to the areas obtained through the secularisation of ecclesiastical goods. For nearly two hundred years (until 1945) they lived in several German or Polish-German villages, mainly in the Lach region, creating their own culture. In this region many Jews settled in this area, finding here favorable conditions; They deal mostly with trade (as in all Galicia).

Another ethnically and culturally diverse group living in Sadeczcyzna  is the Carpathian Gypsies. Their settlements in the vicinity of the village exist in Podkarpacie at least since the 18th century.